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Heterogeneous Atmospheric Chemistry
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Heterogeneous Atmospheric Chemistry

1.Formation Mechanism and Control Strategies of Haze in China


Rapid economic development and urbanization have resulted in a large amount of pollutants being emitted into the atmosphere. About 30% of China's land area and 500,000,000 people are suffering from hazewhich is especially serious in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta regions. The haze occurrence frequency (number of days on which haze occurred) is greater than 50% in Beijing and Shanghai and greater than 30% in Guangzhou and Shenzhen.


The cause of regional haze, the key pollutants and pollution sources, and the scientific prevention and control strategies for pollution are urgently needed to advance current economic development and environmental quality improvement. After nearly 3 years of preparation, the project “Formation mechanism and control strategies of haze in China” was supported by the strategic priority research program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chief scientist is Professor Hong He.



Core members:


Chief scientist: Prof. Hong He, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Prof. Yuesi Wang, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Prof. Zifa Wang, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Prof. Xinming Wang, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Prof. Jianguo Liu, Hefei Institute of Physical science, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Prof. Yunfa Chen, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences


Research objectives:


Reveal the physical and chemical mechanisms of regional haze formation, as certain the key pollutants and pollution sources, determine the transport of pollutants across regions, develop an air pollution forecasting, diagnosis and control decision model with independent intellectual property rights for our country, develop the scientific prevention and control strategies for pollution, provide scientific and feasible technology and policy solutions for haze in China, especially in the regions of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta.





Research Thrusts:


Ø Laboratory studies: Mechanism

Ø Secondary aerosol formation mechanism and kinetics

Ø Contribution of different sources to PM

Ø Aging of aerosol relevant to haze formation potential

Ø Field measurements: Sources

Ø Characterization of regional PM

Ø Source apportionments of PM

Ø Modeling studies: Strategies

Ø Developing advanced models for haze simulation, prediction and control

Ø Parameterization for modeling studies with localized meteorological and chemical module

Ø Emission inventories

Ø Instrument development: Methods

Ø Smog chamber (1*30 m3 and 2*5 m3 indoor, 2*4 m3 indoor and outdoor chambers)

Ø Spectrometers:

Ø Laser radars: O3, PM, H2O




Ø Mass spectrometers: Aerosol, VOCs

Ø Gas chromatograph: PAN, VOCs

Ø Abatement technologies: Solutions

Ø  PM, VOC, NOx, SO2….


 2. Chemical Aging of Soot

Soot or black carbon, which originates from fossil-fuel combustion and biomass burning, is an important component of atmospheric particulate matter. Soot has attracted intensive attention because it plays an important role in global warming, regional or local precipitation and air quality, and also poses a threat to human health. Soot is a mixture of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Soot will undergo chemical aging in the atmosphere, subsequently resulting in changes in the environmental, climatic and health effects of soot that greatly depend on the composition and morphology. At the present time, the aging mechanism of soot is poorly understood. For example, how does EC or OC act during the chemical aging of soot? What is the structure-activity relationship and so on?



2.1 Influence of composition on the hydrophilicity of soot


Different soot samples were prepared from toluene, n-hexane, and decane combustion under controlled conditions. Based upon chemical and property analysis, it was found that the hydrophilicity of n-hexane and decane flame soot increased with decreasing fuel/oxygen ratio, while it had an inverse effect on the mean particle size. The fuel/oxygen ratio had little effect on the morphology of aggregates. The hydrophilic functional groups identified with IR and Raman spectroscopy have been found to be mainly located at graphene layer edges and on surface graphene layers in soot.


2.2 The role of EC in the ozonolysis of soot

Heterogeneous reactions of soot toward O3 were investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of bands for G, D1, D2, D3, D4 and anhydride species increased as a function of reaction time in “fuel-rich” flame soot, while the bands for D1, D4 and anhydride species showed an increase in FWHM for “fuel-lean” flame soot. This means that the degree of disorder in the micro-crystalline domains in soot particles increased after heterogeneous oxidation. Amorphous carbon and the disordered graphitic lattice were identified as the reactive components for the ozonization of soot. The kinetics study demonstrated that the disordered carbon in the surface graphene layers was more active than that at the graphene layer edges in one sample, and the reactivity of these two microstructure types to O3 in the “fuel-rich” flame soot was higher than that in the “fuel-lean” flame soot.


2.3 The role of OC during aging of soot


It was found that NO2 uptake coefficients and HONO yields decrease with the decreasing of the fuel/oxygen ratio during soot preparation; and OC is the reactive component in soot when it reacts with NO2. The quantitative relationship between NO2 uptake coefficients, HONO and NO yields and the content of OC with reduced state on soot was obtained.

Visible light irradiation was found to greatly promote the heterogeneous reaction between soot and O2. Quinones, ketones, aldehydes, lactones, and anhydrides were identified as products during photochemical aging of soot. Under irradiation of 25 mW·cm−2, the apparent rate constants (k1,obs) for loss or formation of species on soot aged by 20% O2 were larger by factors of 1.5–3.5 than those on soot aged by 100 ppb O3.

3. Formation Mechanism of Secondary Inorganic Aerosol under Complex Pollution Conditions in the Atmosphere


The atmosphere is a mixed system with multi- pollutant, multi-media coexistence. The interface reactions between gaseous pollutants and particulate matters will affect the conversion of atmospheric gaseous pollutants, as well as change the composition and properties of microscopic airborne particles, which further affects regional air quality. Therefore, revealing the interactions and synergistic effects among various pollutants in atmospheric chemical processes is critical to understand the formation mechanism of secondary particles under combined pollution, and is also important to reveal the formation causes of complex pollution in China.

3.1 Synergistic effect between SO2 and NO2 in heterogeneous reaction

Sulfate is an important component of atmospheric particles, with a strong light scattering effect, having significant implications for global climate change and regional air quality; and is especially closely related to the causes of haze. The study found that in synthetic air conditions, the main product in the heterogeneous reactions of SO2 on mineral oxide surfaces was sulfite, while sulfate was hardly formed (except for Fe2O3& MgO). Coexisting NOx can greatly facilitate the conversion of SO2 and sulfite to sulfate. Further analysis showed that NO2 and oxide particles play key roles as catalysts to promote the activation of molecular oxygen in reactions, thus contributing to the formation of sulfates.

 (J Phys Chem A, 2008, 6630; Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2012, 1668)


In a smog chamber study, NOx at environmental concentrations and suspended mineral oxide particles were both observed to promote the yield of sulfates. Moreover, in the severe haze episode in January 2013, monitoring data in Beijing showed that SO2 concentrations in the Beijing urban area were close to those in the northern suburban area, but the PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area were higher than in the northern suburb and were positively correlated with the concentration of NOx. Sulfate constitutes the largest fraction among the components in PM2.5 during heavy haze, and the growth trend is closely related to the mineral dust component, indicating that a high concentration of mineral particles and NOx are key factors to promote the conversion of SO2 to sulfate during haze episodes. The results show that under complex pollution conditions, the environmental capacity for SO2 declines, which can lead to the rapid growth of sulfate -induced haze. (Scientific Reports, 2014,: 4 04172)


3.2 Synergistic effect between SO2 and NH3 in heterogeneous reaction

On typical mineral oxide surfaces (e.g., Fe2O3), coexistingNH3 and SO2 enhanced the formation of sulfate and ammonia simultaneously, as well as altering the adsorption states of sulfate and ammonia on the surface.



4. Formation Mechanism of Secondary Organic Aerosol under Complex Pollution Conditions


Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important component of the fine particles (PM2.5) in urban and suburban atmospheres. SOA contributed 20%~70% of the organic constituent mass in PM2.5 on average, while this ratio rises to over 90%inphotochemical smog pollution. SOA is generated from the oxidation of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols etc. The composition and formation processes of SOA are very complicated. The formation mechanism of SOA in highly complex pollution needs further investigation.


4.1 The effects of mineral oxides on SOA yield

Mineral dust is among the typical atmospheric particulate matters in our country; and especially in North China, it is a major air pollutant. Regarding the effects of seed particles on SOA formation, previous research mainly focused on the effects of acidic particles on the photochemical reaction of VOCs, but the effects of mineral dust have not been reported. ChoosingAl2O3as atypical representative of mineral particles in China, the effect of mineral seed particles on SOA yield in m-xylene and α-pinene photo-oxidation was investigated in the smog chamber. The result showed that although the concentration of the oxidant O3decreased in the photochemical reaction due to its catalytic decomposition and uptake on Al2O3, the formation of OH radicals could be enhanced. Therefore, the effect of Al2O3seed particles on SOA yield in m-xylene and α-pinene photo oxidation is not clear.

(Atmos. Environ. 2013, 77: 781-789, Sci. China Earth Sci.2015, 58(2): 245-254, Sci. China Chem.2015, 58: 1426-1434.)


4.2 The effect of background seed particles on SOA size distribution


The study found that the extensive homogeneous nucleation occurring in seed-free experiments was suppressed with the addition of low concentrations of Al2O3 seed particles; the seed particles led to a moderate heterogeneous SOA formation process and markedly decreased the number concentration of particles. Compared with seed-free experiments, introducing high concentrations of Al2O3seed particles was found to increase the particle number concentration but decrease the particle size obviously. The decrease in SOA size will prolong the atmospheric lifetime of the particles, aggravate the human health risk, and simultaneously change their extinction characteristics. (Atmos. Environ.2013, 77: 781-789.)

4.3 The effect of inorganic seed particles on SOA aging

Under the conditions of highly complex pollution with inorganic particles and organic aerosol in the urban atmosphere of China, SOA isoften generated through the condensation of organics on the surface of inorganic seed particles. It is of great importance to research the influence of inorganic aerosol seeds on the SOA aging process in the presence of complex pollution. We simulated SOA formation in a smog chamber under different seed particle conditions and found that the SOA yield decreased significantly in the presence of iron sulfate seed particles. The simulation of SOA formation under different relative humidity (RH) conditions confirmed that iron sulfate affected SOA aging in its surface water. Reactive oxidant species (ROS) were generated in the aerosol phase in the Fenton-like reaction between iron ions and peroxides during the redox process. These ROS further oxidized the generated SOA, therefore causing the oxidation degree of SOA to increase and simultaneously generating some organic products with high volatility, which partitioned back to the gas phase and resulted in lower SOA yield. These results help explain the phenomenon that the oxidation degree of SOA in obtained laboratory simulation was generally lower than that in field observation studies. The presence of inorganic seed particle could also affect the hygroscopicity of the generated SOA, and influence its contribution to haze pollution.(Atmos. Environ. 2012, 55: 26-34, Environ. Pollut. 2014, 193: 88-93, J. Environ. Sci. 2014, 26 (1): 129-139.)



Related Papers:

1.       Biwu Chu, Yongchun Liu, Qingxin Ma, Jinzhu Ma, Hong He*, Gang Wang, Shuiyuan Cheng, Xinming Wang, “Distinct potential aerosol masses under different scenarios of transport at a suburban site of Beijing”, J. Environ. Sci., 39, (2016) 52-61.

2.       Chu Biwu, Liu Tengyu, Zhang Xiao, Liu Yongchun, Ma Qingxin, Ma Jinzhu, He Hong*, Wang Xinming, Li Junhua, Hao Jiming. Secondary aerosol formation and oxidation capacity in photooxidation in the presence of Al2O3 seed particles and SO2. Sci. China-Chem., 2015, 58, (9), 1426-1434.

3.       Tong Shengrui*, Hou Siqi, Zhang Ying, Chu Biwu, Liu Yongchun, He Hong, Zhao Pusheng, Ge Maofa. Comparisons of measured nitrous acid (HONO) concentrations in a pollution period at urban and suburban Beijing, in autumn of 2014. Sci. China-Chem., 2015, 58, (9), 1393-1402.

4.       Liu Tengyu, Wang Xinming*, Deng Wei, Zhang Yanli, Chu Biwu, Ding Xiang, Hu Qihou, He Hong, Hao Jiming. Role of ammonia in forming secondary aerosols from gasoline vehicle exhaust. Sci. China-Chem. 2015, 58, (9), 1377-1384.

5.       马庆鑫, 马金珠, 楚碧武, 刘永春, 赖承钺, 贺泓*. 矿质和黑碳颗粒物表面大气非均相反应研究进展. 科学通报, 2015, 60(2), 122-136.

6.       Chang Liu, Qingxin Ma, Biwu Chu, Yongchun Liu, Hong He, Xiaoye Zhang*, Junhua Li, Jiming Hao, Effect of aluminium dust on secondary organic aerosol formation in m-xylene/NOx photo-oxidation”, Sci. China Earth Sci., 58, (2015) 245-254.

7.       Yongchun Liu, Chong Han, Jinzhu Ma, Xiaolei Bao, Hong He*, Influence of relative humidity on heterogeneous kinetics of NO2 on kaolin and hematite”, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, 17, 19424-19431.

8.       Chengyue Lai, Yongchun Liu*, Jinzhu Ma, Qingxin Ma, Biwu Chu, and Hong He*, Heterogeneous kinetics of cis-pinonic acid with hydroxyl radical under different environmental conditions”, J. Phys. Chem. A, 119, (2015) 6583-6593.

9.       Chengyue Lai, Yongchun Liu,* Jinzhu Ma, Qingxin Ma, Hong He*, Laboratory study on OH-initiated degradation kinetics of dehydroabietic acid”, Phys.Chem.Chem. Phys., 17, (2015) 10953-10962.

10.    Xuliang Zhuang, Yuesi Wang, Hong He, Jianguo Liu, Xinming Wang, Tingyu Zhu,Maofa Ge, Ju Zhou, Guiqian Tang, Jinzhu Ma, “Haze insights and  mitigation in China: An overview”, J. Environ. Sci., 26, (2014) 2-12.

11.    Biwu Chu, Yongchun Liu, Junhua Li, Hideto Takekawa, John Liggio, Shaomeng Li, Jingkun Jiang, Jiming Hao, Hong He*, Decreasing effect and mechanism of FeSO4 seed particles on secondary organic aerosol in a-pinene photooxidation”, Environ. Pollut., 193, (2014) 88-93.

12.    Chengyue Lai, Yongchun Liu*, Jinzhu Ma, Qingxin Ma, Hong He*, Degradation kinetics of levoglucosan initiated by hydroxyl radical under different environmental conditions”, Atmos. Environ., 91, (2014) 32-39.

13.    Jinzhu Ma, Hongmin Wu, Yongchun Liu, Hong He*, Photocatalytic removal of NOx over visible light responsive oxygen-deficient TiO2”, J. Phys. Chem. C, 118, (2014) 7434-7441.

14.    Biwu Chu, Kun Wang, Hideto Takekawa, Junhua Li, Wei Zhou, Jingkun Jiang, Qingxin Ma, Hong He, Jinming Hao*,  Hygroscopicity of particles generated from photooxidation of α-pinene under different oxidation conditions in the presence of sulfate seed aerosols”, J. Environ. Sci., 26, (2014)129-139.

15.    Hong He*, Yuesi Wang*, Qingxin Ma, Jinzhu Ma, Biwu Chu, Dongsheng Ji, Guiqian Tang, Chang Liu, Hongxing Zhang, Jiming Hao, “Mineral dust and NOx promote the conversion of SO2 to sulfate in heavy pollution days”, Sci. Rep., 4, (2014) 04172.  

16.     Chang Liu, Yongchun Liu, Qingxin Ma, Jinzhu Ma, Hong He*, Alumina with various pore structures prepared by spray pyrolysis of inorganic aluminum precursors”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 52, (2013) 13377-13383.

17.    贺泓,王新明,王跃思,王自发,刘建国,陈运法,“大气灰霾追因与控制”,中国科学院院刊32013344-352.

18.    Qingxin Ma, Hong He*, Yongchun Liu, Chang Liu, Vicki H. Grassian, “Heterogeneous and multiphase formation pathways of gypsum in the atmosphere”, Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys., 15, (2013) 19196-19204.

19.    Qingxin Ma, Jinzhu Ma, Chang Liu, Chengyue Lai, Hong He*, “Laboratory study on the hygroscopicbehavior of external and internal C2−C4 dicarboxylic Acid−NaCl mixtures”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 47, (2013) 10381-10388.

20.    Qingxin Ma, Hong He*, Chang Liu, “Hygroscopic properties of oxalic acid and atmospherically relevant oxalates”, Atmos. Environ., 69, (2013) 281-288.

21.    Chang Liu, Biwu Chu, Yongchun Liu*, Qingxin Ma, Jinzhu Ma, Hong He*, Junhua Li, Jiming Hao, “Effect of mineral dust on secondary organic aerosol yield and aerosol size in a-pinene/NOx photo-oxidation”, Atmos. Environ., 77, (2013) 781-789.

22.    Chong Han, Yongchun Liu, Hong He*, “Role of Organic Carbon in     Heterogeneous Reaction of NO2 with Soot”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 47, (2013) 3174-3181.

23.    Jinzhu Ma, Yongchun Liu, Chong Han, Qingxin Ma, Chang Liu, Hong He*, “Review of heterogeneous photochemical reactions of NOy on aerosol  A possible daytime source of nitrous acid (HONO) in the atmosphere”, J. Environ. Sci., 25, (2013) 326-334.

24.    Jinzhu Ma, Yongchun Liu, Qingxin Ma, Chang Liu, Hong He*Heterogeneous photochemical reaction of ozone with anthracene adsorbed on mineral dust”,  Atmos. Environ., 72, (2013) 165-170.

25.    Chong Han, Yongchun Liu*, Hong He*, “Heterogeneous photochemical aging of soot by NO2 under simulated sunlight”, Atmos. Environ., 64, (2013) 270-276.

26.    Chong Han, Yongchun Liu*, Jinzhu Ma, Hong He*, “Key role of organic carbon in the sunlight enhanced atmospheric aging of soot by O2, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA., 109(52), (2012) 21250-21255.

27.    Yongchun Liu, Qingxin Ma, Hong He*, “Heterogeneous Uptake of Amines by Citric Acid and Humic Acid”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, (2012) 11112-11118.

28.    Chong Han, Yongchun Liu*, Jinzhu Ma, Hong He*, “Effect of soot microstructure on its ozonization reactivity”, J. Chem. Phys., 137, (2012) 084507.

29.    Yongchun Liu, Chong Han, Chang Liu, Junzhu Ma, Qingxin Ma, Hong He*, “Differences in the reactivity of ammonium salts with methylamine”, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, (2012) 4855-4865.

30.    Qingxin Ma, Yongchun Liu, Chang Liu, Hong He*, “Heterogeneous reaction of acetic acid on MgO, a-Al2O3, and CaCO3 and the effect on the hygroscopic behaviour of these particles”,Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys., 14, (2012) 8403-8409.

31.    Chong Han, Yongchun Liu*, Chang Liu, Jinzhu Ma, Hong He*, “Influence of combustion conditions on hydrophilic properties and microstructure of flame soot”, J. Phys. Chem. A, 116, (2012) 4129-4136.

32.    Qingxin Ma, Yongchu Liu, Chang Liu, Jinzhu Ma, Hong He*, “A case study of Asian dust storm particles: Chemical composition, reactivity to SO2 and hygroscopic properties”, J. Environ. Sci, 24, (2012) 62-71. 

33.    Qingxin Ma, Hong He*, “Synergistic effect in the humidifying process of atmospheric relevant calcium nitrate, calcite and oxalic acid mixtures”, Atmos. Environ., 50, (2012) 97-102.

34.    Chang Liu, Qingxin Ma, Yongchun Liu, Jinzhu Ma, Hong He*, Synergistic reaction between SO2and NO2 on mineral oxides: a potential formation pathway of sulfate aerosol. Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys., 14, (2012) 1668-1676.

35.    刘俊峰、耿春梅、张逸、张圆圆、牟玉静*贺泓, “羰基硫(COS)在五种富氧型土壤中的吸收与转化”, 环境化学, 30, (2011) 579-584.

36.    马金珠、刘永春、马庆鑫、刘畅、贺泓*, “大气非均相反应及其环境效应”, 环境化学, 30, (2011) 97-119.

37.    Jinzhu Ma, Yongchun Liu, Hong He*, “Heterogeneous reactions between NO2 and anthracene adsorbed on SiO2 and MgO ”, Atmos. Environ., 45, (2011) 917-924.

38.    Yongchun Liu, Junzhu Ma, Chang Liu, Hong He*, “Heterogeneous uptake of carbonyl sulfide onto kaolinite within a temperature range of 220330 K”, J. Geophys. Res., 115, (2010) D24311.

39.    Jinzhu Ma, Yongchun Liu, Hong He*, “Degradation kinetics of anthracene by ozone on mineral oxides”, Atmos. Environ., 44, (2010) 4446-4453.

40.    Chang Liu, Yongchun Liu, Qingxin Ma, Hong He*, “Mesoporous transition alumina with uniform pore structure synthesized by alumisol spray pyrolysis”, Chem. Eng. J., 163, (2010) 133-142.

41.    Yongchun Liu, Chang Liu, Jinzhu Ma, Qingxin Ma, Hong He*, “Structural and hygroscopic changes of soot during heterogeneous reaction with O3, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, (2010) 10896-10903.

42.    Yongchun Liu, Junzhu Ma, Hong He*, “Heterogeneous reactions of carbonyl     sulfide on mineral oxides: mechanism and kinetics study”, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, (2010) 10335-10344.

43.    Qingxin Ma, Yongchun Liu, Chang Liu, Jinzhu Ma, Hong He*, “A comprehensive characterisation of Asian dust storm particles: chemical composition, reactivity to SO2, and hygroscopic property”,Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 10, (2010) 8899-8925.

44.    Qingxin Ma, Hong He*Yongchun Liu, In situ DRIFTS study of hygroscopic  behavior of mineral aerosol ”, J. Environ. Sci., 22, (2010) 555-560.

45.    Qingxin Ma, Yongchun Liu, Hong He*, “The utilization of physisorption analyzer for studying the hygroscopic properties of atmospheric relevant particles”, J. Phys. Chem. A, 114, (2010) 4232-4237.

46.    Yongchun Liu, Qingxin Ma, Hong He*, Comparative study of the effect of  water on the heterogeneous reactions of carbonyl sulfide on the surface of α-Al2O3 and MgO” , Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, (2009) 6273-6286.

47.    Yongchun Liu, Hong He*, Experimental and theoretical study of hydrogen thiocarbonate for heterogeneous reaction of carbonyl sulfide on magnesium oxide”, J. Phys. Chem. A, 113, (2009) 3387-3394.

48.    贺泓*, 刘永春,曲久辉, “环境微界面过程的原位和在线研究方法”, 环境科学学报, 29, (2009) 11-20.

49.    Qingxin Ma, Yingchun Liu, Hong He*, “Synergistic effect between NO2 and SO2 in their adsorption and reaction on γ-Alumina”, J. Phys. Chem. A, 112, (2008) 6630-6635.

50.    Xiaobing Pang, Yujing Mu*, Juan Yuan, Hong He, “Carbonyls emission from ethanol-blended gasoline and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel used in engines”, Atmos. Environ., 42, (2008) 1349-1358.

51.    Yongchun Liu, Hong He*, Qingxin Ma, “Temperature dependence for heterogeneous reaction of carbonyl sulfide on magnesium oxide”, J. Phys. Chem. A., 112, (2008) 2820-2826.

52.    Yongchun Liu, Hong He*, Yujing Mu, “Heterogeneous reactivity of carbonyl sulfide on α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3, Atmos. Environ., 42, (2008) 960-969.

53.    刘永春, 贺泓*, “大气颗粒物化学组成分析”, 化学进展, 19(10), (2007) 1620-1631.

54.    Junfeng Liu, Yujing Mu*, Chunmei Geng, Yunbo Yu, Hong He, Yuanhang Zhang, “Uptake and conversion of carbonyl sulfide in a lawn soil”, Atmos. Environ., 41, (2007) 5697-5706.

55.    Yongchun Liu, Hong He*, Wenqing Xu, Yunbo Yu, Mechanism of heterogeneous reaction of carbonyl sulfide on magnesium oxide, J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, (2007) 4333-4339.

56.    Yongchun Liu, Junfeng Liu, Hong He*, Yunbo Yu, Li Xue, “Heterogeneous oxidation of carbonyl sulfide on mineral oxides”, Chin. Sci. Bull., 52(15), (2007) 2063-2071.

57.    刘永春, 刘俊锋, 贺泓*, 余运波, 薛莉, “羰基硫在矿质氧化物上的非均相氧化反应”, 科学通报, 52(5), (2007) 525-533.

58.    Hong He*, Junfeng Liu, Yujing Mu, Yunbo Yu, Meixue Chen, “Heterogeneous oxidation of carbonyl sulfide on atmospheric particles and alumina”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39(24), (2005) 9637-9642.

59.    刘俊锋, 耿春梅, 牟玉静, 贺泓*, “羰基硫(COS)在土壤中的吸收与转化”, 环境化学, 23(6), (2004) 615-620.







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